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Do you know what progesterone does?


Progesterone, also known as progesterone hormone and progesterone hormone, is the main biologically active progesterone secreted by the ovary. The molecular formula is C21H30O2. Before ovulation, the amount of progesterone hormone produced per day is 2 to 3 mg, mainly from the ovaries.


After ovulation, it rises to 20-30 mg per day, most of which is secreted by the corpus luteum in the ovary. Progesterone can protect the endometrium of women. During pregnancy, progesterone hormones can provide support and protection for the early growth and development of the fetus, and can play a certain role in calming the uterus.

In addition, the relationship between progesterone and estrogen is inseparable, both of which are very important female hormones. The role of estrogen is mainly to promote the development and maturity of female secondary sexual characteristics, while progesterone further promotes the development and maturity of secondary sexual characteristics on the basis of the role of estrogen, and there is a synergistic effect between the two.

Pharmacological effects of progesterone:
1. In the second half of the menstrual cycle, it promotes the growth of glands in the endometrium, hyperemia of the uterus, thickening of the endometrium, preparation for the implantation of a fertilized egg, and reduces the excitability of the uterus during pregnancy, inhibits its activity, and relaxes smooth muscles , allowing the embryo to grow safely.

2. Under the joint action of estrogen, it can promote the development of breast lobules and glands, so that the breasts can fully develop and prepare for lactation.

3. The cervix is closed, the mucus is reduced and thickened, and the sperm is not easily penetrated; in large doses, the secretion of pituitary gonadotropin is inhibited through the negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus, resulting in the inhibition of ovulation.

4. On the basis of hormone action after ovulation, the endometrium continues to thicken and hyperemia, the glands proliferate and branch, and the proliferative phase turns to the secretory phase, which is beneficial to the implantation and embryonic development of pregnant eggs.

5. Inhibit uterine contractions and reduce the sensitivity of the uterus to oxytocin, so that the fetus can grow safely.

6. Competitively against aldosterone, thereby promoting Na and Cl excretion and diuresis.

7. Progesterone can slightly increase body temperature in normal women, so the basal body temperature in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is higher than that in the follicular phase.